Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian State of Odisha and a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India. Along with the old town, the region of Bhubaneswar, historically was often depicted as Ekamra Kshetra. With the diverse ranges of heritage resources, it showcases significant sacred cultural landscape components which have evolved with the support of available natural resource base and cultural trigger.
Although the modern city of Bhubaneswar was formally established only in 1948, the history of the areas in and around the present-day city can be traced to 1st century BCE and earlier. With many 8th – 12th century CE Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a ‘Temple City of India’. With Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja (Golden Triangle), one of eastern India’s most visited destinations.
Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital on 19th August 1949, 2 years after India gained its independence from British rule. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the ‘twin cities of Odisha’. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011. As the seat of the Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar is home to the Odisha Legislative Assembly and the State Secretariat. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country’s fastest-developing cities.
Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate. The annual mean temperature is 27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22° – 32 °C (72° – 90 °F). Summers (March to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30 °C; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June. Winter lasts for only about ten weeks, with seasonal lows dipping to 15° – 18 °C (59° – 64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 32° – 42 °C (90° – 108 °F). January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15° – 28 °C (59° – 82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113 °F), and the lowest is 12 °C (54 °F). Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west summer monsoon lash Bhubaneswar between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,542 mm (61 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 330 mm (13 in), occurs in August. (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhubaneswar)