by Anam Behera
The unprecedented growth and expansion of the Town, City is one of the great challenges for existence of the heritage, monumental building and Archaeological site in the age of urbanization. Many priceless and valuable heritages were crushed under the wheel of the urbanization. It is a great concern for the planner and Administrator who the priceless heritage which we have inherited from our forefather to protected it and handed down to the prosterity.It is no doubt people those who aware about the importance of heritage are worrying how to protect, conserve and preserve it. Same time there also some people those are thinking that the heritage are no value or less value in comparison to the urban growth. We should respect the view point of both the people. Yes, urbanization is required for growth and development we cannot escape in the motion of the growth of urbanism. Same time we should give adequate attention towards the protection of our heritage. Every place, every event and every time and concern society has their own value. In this regard, society of present days, the event of urbanization is great concern. For the temple city Bhubaneswar. Late here express my view which I have accumulated information from the history of the two world heritage monument of India. One is belong to our state Odisha that is Konark and another one is TajMahal. Both of these monuments were slightly escaped from destruction. Both of the monuments are considered pride and glory of our country. under the British rule some commercial minded people thought that TajMaha should be pull down and the white marble of the TajMahal be sold in European market. Everything is ready for the work of demolition of TajMahal. it is the destiny of the monuments, at the verse of the destruction of the TajMahal.A latter reached from the authority where refers that it is not viable for commercial point of view to sell the Marble in European market, and secondly the collapse of the Tajmahal may create a antagonistic attitude among Muslim against British.
Let’s see how TajMahal is one of the profits making tourist Attraction in India.
The ruins of konark known as black pagoda by the British Sailors those who were Travelled from Madrass (Chinnai) to Calcutta and Jagannath Temple is known as white pagoda due to its lime washes effect, both the temple were served as the land mark for the sailors in that days. When Odisha was occupied by Britishers in 1803, then it was decided by some British administrator that a light house be established over the ruin of the temple which will enable the sailor for their journeying in the sea. Before coming of European the Marathas rule over Odisha did not thought about conservation and revives of the temple .Rather they sifted the arunastanba from konark temple to the Jagannatha temple at Puri.Even ruler of Puri collected stone from this place to Puri to construct palace and temple there. It is evident from the report of Andrew Starling,W.W.Hunter and R.L.Mitra that local people are engaged to collect iron beam from Konark temple.this was the past of Konark temple finally in 1902 the conservation work started. But some people of the British administration imphatuated by the atheistic beauty of the sculpture in its ruins and they recommended for its renovation and conservation. Finally what happened, the Konark Temple becomes the world Heritage site, and it is one of its kinds in entire Eastern India. From these above stories of the two great monuments. The present town planner, thinker should learn something and work for the protection of heritage site in the Urban center.
In the case of Bhubaneswar the living monuments are some extent save by the community participation with the help of Government, but what happening on the unprotected and lesser known monument every one known about it. Even the centrally protected monument by Archaeological Survey of India Sisupalgarha in the verse of extinction.Sisupalgarha is one of only site in India which has unique and planed urban center belonged to 3th century B.C .For its protection every concern authorities express their helplessness, who knows what happening there. How much Land belongs to private person and How Much remains for Archaeology Survey of India .People from outside India under British rule realized to renovate and protect Konark, but in Independent India. People were remaining silent spectator before whom Sisupalgarh is in its final stage of extinction in the map of Archaeological site of India. Still Time is there to protect Sisupalgarh whatever remains in its present form and a stone temple park can be build having the replica of temple from all part of Odisha and even India which will be one of the great Tourist attraction of India.
Let me give another example regarding the value of heritage which is realized by many. The Dhauli Elephants and Asokan rock Edict, the same rock builder contains the inscription and the elephant sculpture. If we considered that the piece of rock can be used for utilitarian purpose, for fulfillment of the material aspect of the society by knowingly and unknowingly. Who many kilometers of concrete road can be built. Who many years it can be able to serve the purpose of the people. But as heritage this small piece of stone considered as glory for Odisha and it commonly contributed for generating money for government in form of Tourism. Another experience I had gather from field that while exploration of area around Khurdha and Jatani the owner of the mound Harirajpur,Banga have willing to sell the soil of mound to make Brick which is very much demand for construction works. Somehow timely decision of prof K.K.Basa anthropology department of Utkal University and prof Rabimahanty of Deccan College Pune, to undertake Archaeological excavation of the site, as a result a new horizon of knowledge about chalcolithic culture of Odisha come to lime light. Second observation is about the attitude of the people toward the sites especially in Khurdha region, the idea of people about chalcolithic mound is being
Restricted with memory of Khurdha fort which is belonging to medieval period. But it is beyond the imagination of common people to thought that these simple hips of soil belong to four thousands year old. So that they are neglect the site which found on government land and destroyed it for converting to agricultural land and another common use.
Finally we all are agree that, A building having hundreds of storey can be build anywhere, with the help of modern sophisticated machine, can we? Create a heritage, monument and Archaeological site which belongs to the thousands of years old. If Answer is no. then everyone should thought about our heritage, come forward to protect it and if it is necessary save it and protect for future generation.
Regarding future of heritage here we can cited the thought of people tsuch as. James M. Hensline believes In earlier time’s people lived relatively in isolation, for human history cultures had little contact with one another, consequently in their relative isolation group of people developed highly distinctive way of life in response to a particular situations they faced. The characteristic they developed, that distinguished one culture from another tended to change little over time .according toJames D.Wolfonohn, president of World Bank “cultural Heritage can be justified for Tourism, for industry and for employment, but it must also be seen as an essential element in preserving and enhancing national pride and sprit”.Directore general of UNICCO ,General F .Mayor .says the potential benefits of world heritage extend far beyond the sites which have been steed ,since these area as a whole can bring resource for training which will be of wider application and can be flagships in terms of raising public awareness of conservation issues, and world heritage sites have no doubt became tourist attraction and form the backbone of the tourism Industry.
(The writer is from P.G. Department Ancient Indian History Culture and Archaeology, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswer)