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International Conference on Indian Cultural Heritage:

Past, Present and the Future

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Utkal University and Institute of Media Studies (IMS), Bhubaneswar are jointly organizing an International Conference on Indian Cultural Heritage: Past, Present And Future from 18 – 20 March 2017, at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, in association with Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR). OdishaLIVE is associated with the event as knowledge partner.

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18-20 March 2017 | Bhubaneswar

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Utkal University

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The Cult of Jagannath, Secularism and the Egalitarian Order: A Critical Appraisal

by B.K Malik

The religious history of Odisha is unique and different from other parts of India. It is different not because of its language, but because of its distinct regional tradition which is characterized as an unbroken cultural development. Perhaps due to its geographical location it was partly able to withstand the Muslim conquest till 1568, more than three centuries longer than most other parts of North and central India. And even during the heyday of the Muslim rule under the Mughals, the distance from Delhi allowed Odisha to preserve her regional tradition and cullture till 1803.

Another outstanding feature of Odisha is 16th persistent existence of a strong tribal element throught its history. Even at present 25 percent of its population consists of tribal people and also they constitute Odisha therefore population of India about 15 percent of the total has often been regarded as an excellent example of Hindu-tribal dichotomy in India. At a superficial level this characterization might be correct. But a more scrutinizing analysis reveals to what an extent the regional tradition of Odisha is characterized by an uninterrupted tribal Hindu continuum. This characteristic feature of the culture of Odisha still finds its lasting manifestation in the Jagannath cult of Puri. The archaic iconography of the cult images on the one hand and their highest Hindu iconolgy on the other as well as the existence of former tribals (dalits) and Vedic Brahmins amongst its priests are by no means an anti thesis. But a splendid regional of the synthesis the local and the all Indian tradition

In the present paper there is an attempt to discuss whether secular features do really exist and are précised in the Jagannath Culture. We have listened to very importance episodes of Gaddess Lakshmi’s visit to the house of an Untouchable women devotee, Lord Jagannath visit to the house of an Untouchable saint. Bhakta Dasia and halting of Chariot for the devotees namely Balaram Dasa and Salabega. In this paper special attention has been paid to the contribution of Bhakta Salabega to the religious tradition Odisha.

The History of Odisha in 16th and 17th century A.D. was very important and during this period so many literary works of different poets, the role of Panchasakhas and Bhakta Kabi Salabega are considered very important in the history and culture of of Odisha. Born and brought of in a critical time Salabega, created a new Socio-Religious atmosphere in the 17th century A.D. His contribution to the Socio-Religious life was very significant and he had definitely occupied a prominent position as a sincere devotee of Lord Jagannath.

In the beginning of this period Islam gave a very inner awakening and carefulness to Hinduism. It helped to direct the socio-cultural onslaught on the Brahminical supremacy and encouraged declining the religious patronage of Hinduism. The great contribution of Muslim royal dynastices to Delhi was the introduction and propagation of Islam in India. Thus in such a critical time the rise of Salabega was an important event for the reformation of Society. In the childhood Salabega was brought up amidst Islamic culture but getting inspiration from his mother during the time of his illness, he developed a strong sense of devotion towards Balamukunda, a Hindu deity. The poems of Salabega are quoted in ‘Pada Kalpatarus’ of which one is written in Odia (1542). The second poem shows traces of Bengali and the third (2972) shows traces of BraJabhaka. A fourth poem, written entirely in Brajabuli, is quoted in (Aprakasita Padaratnavali) from the ‘Padarasara’.

According to the Odia tradition Salabega was the son of Lalbag Muslim a father and a Hindu mother. He became a devout Vaishnava even in his early youth, and after his mother’s demise he lived at Vraja. The Brajabhaka influence in one of his poems also shows that the poet must have retired to Brindaban

He started composing ‘bhajans eulogising the lovable aspects of Lord Srikrishna. After his return from Brindavana, he composed a few more bhajans and chaupadis on Srikrishna’s childhood activities and the amorous sports. These are supposed to have been his primary compositions. Then he stayed at Srikshetra for a considerable period and after witnessing the car festival and other festivals of lord Jagannath and hearing his glory from other devotees, he must have composed his bhajans based on lord Jagannath in the second phase of devotional career. In the last phase of his life, generally the poets get themselves involved in the discussion of the true knowledge of God and the mystery of human life. Salabega was no exception to this. Ho must have composed these groups of poems in the third phase of his life.

Salabega’s bhajans on Lord Srikrishna, ‘Brahmajanans’ his poems on Siva and Sakti are the valuable works for the Socio-Religious reformation in the medieval Odisha in 17th Century. Having been greatly absorved in ‘Krishnarash’, Salabega must have desired to go to Brindavan, his place of getting solace and satisfaction by seeing the memories of Radha and Krishna. After being cured from his illness with the grace of Srikrishna, the Lord of Brindavan, Salabega desires to go there and to take a holy bath at Radhakunda and Shyamakunda. He also aspires to drink the holy water of the Yamuna and to have a round on the Gobardhan hills. He wants to make his life pure happier by establishing his association even with the sands and Kunjabana of this place that has been associated with Srikrishna from very early time. Then the poet has been greatly saturated in love and devotion to Bala-Mukunda form of Srikrishna. There he must have had many anecdotes about his childhood activities. The Childlike behavior of Srikrishna towards his mother must have fascinated Salabega. He composed few Chaupadis describing the amusements of Lord Srikrishna. He writes, Yosoda tries to feed the child Srikrishna who does not like to take all these as he remains busy in playing with others. Yosoda calls on the Gopis and allures the child to have a round on the house with these gopis as soon as he finishes his food. Salabega desires to take shelter under the lotus feet of that child Srikrishna.

Sometimes Radha has complained against Krishna about his particular dress which creates a strong reaction and sensation in her minds. Therefore she, out of sensitiveness and wounded pride, has requested Srikrishna to give up of such type of dress. Even if he does it he should also take care not to use the Jasmines on it as it would hurt her sentiments. The ornaments or his waist, the sandals and has majestic movements create a lot of sensations in her mind. Salabega imagines such as beautiful appearance of srikrishna by meditating on this feet in his heart.

Santilata Dei in his book “Vaishnavism in Orissa” refer to that, the post-Chaitnya period up to the 19th century A.D. Witnessed a large number of Padavali writers, who produced numerous songs on Radha – Krishna theme of different songs. Bhakta Kabi Salabega was one among them. Salabega had cherished the greatest ambition of visiting Brindahana, the abode of Krishna, where Krishna performed rasakrida. The composition of Salabega in the 17th century greatly influenced the poets like, Banamali and Gopal Krishna of the latter period, who had also strong inclination and devotional love towards Lord Srikrishna. Even some poems of Banamali appears to be the original writings of Salabega, if a comparative study, is made as regards to choice of words and language by both of them.

From the Dardhyatabhakti Rasamruta of Rama Das, it is known that, as soon as Salabega was cured from his illness, he led the life of a Sanyasi and went to Purusottam Kshetra to make his life pleasant amidst the saints and the sages. He accepted Sri Jagannath as Srikrishna and composed his songs in his honour and dedicated himself on the feet of Lord Jagannath. He refused to enter into the Jagannath temple, as being a son of Muslim. So he was deeply remorse. Hence he wrote in grief, ‘Oh black eyed one’ let this life be ended for being deprived of your darsana’.

This poet’s desire to see Lord jagannath was, however, fulfilled during the car festival. He could see the deities in the car and was, overwhelmed with joy. His grief of not being permitted to enter into the temple of Lord Jagannath due to his excommunication from the society was, however, removed and he was convinced that all his sins would be definitely washed away on the holy sight of Lord Jagannath.

Salabega was also greatly worried over the removal of Jagannath from Puri (Nilachal) on account of the repeated invasions of Mughals. The Gajapati of Odisha, protects the temple from these on slaughts. Therefore the Sevakas of the deity took cave to shift them to a secluded place. When arrangements were made to sand the deities to the place on a bullock-cart this became very much unbearable on the part of Salabega and hence he composed, where are you taking Sri Jagannath? Whom shall we offer our prayer?

Though, Salabega is a famous devotee of Srikrishna, a few of his bhajanas, have also been dedicated in honour of Sri Ram, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. But they are very few in number. He has been greatly inspired and influenced by Hanuman to Sri Ram and has composed a song in his honour, by imagining himself as Hanuman and offering at his lotus feet and imparting a number of advice to Ravan through himself.

After composing songs in honour of Sri krishna, Sri Jagannath and Sri Ram, when he became old he must have been influenced by the spiritual heritage of the country. Salabega belonged to the first part of the 17th century, was long associated with a group of devotees of his contemporary period and during this period he must have been attracted towards the worship of the ‘Sunyabrahma. Hence in the latter part of his writings it is natural that he must have composed songs on the true knowledge of God.

In his ‘Anakar Bha Jans’ Salabega has disclosed the real mystery of human life. Man comes and goes alone at the time of his birth and death. During his short stay in the world he gets himself involved in the worldly life and becomes puzzled. Hence Salabega advises such type of men to take shelter at the lotus feet of Srikrishna to be free from this busy and sordid world.

Salabega has imagined the soul (Jive) and the Supreme soul (Parma) as the ‘parrot’ and ‘myna’ and has tried to glorify the importance of Sri Ram in the life of a human being otherwise this parrot like man can one day be swallowed up by the time – like cat’. Human beings never realize important mystery of their life and hence they cannot aspire for a free and fair place in the heaven. In almost all his bhajnas he had advised the people to realize the transitoriness of this world and side along with it to dedicate themselves at the feet of Sri Ram and Sri Krishna and lord Jagannath. In one of his bhajanas, he has compared the human body with a flower and has stated that the significance of this flower lies only on the lotus feet of the God. Thus through his ‘Ankar bhajanas’ Salabega has expressed his proficiency and uncommon experience with the world, considering from all point of view.

Salabega was not only the devotee of Lord Jagannath, Srikrishna and Sriram but also the devotee of Siva and Devi. But from some of his bhajanas it is known that, he has invoced the Goddess to get the sight of that Nandabala the son of Nanda. In his bhajanas he has described the Goddess as four handed at beautiful, having been seated on a lotus pedestal and holding a lotus, its stem and Japamala’. To feel the existence of lord Jagannath, Sri Krushna and Sri Ram, Salabega must have composed his bhajanas in honour of the Devi, thinking him as the Gopi of Dvapara age. A few bhajans of Salabega have also been recently found out in which he invoked Siva to free him from this moral world.

In a deep devotion and love Salabega wrote that Srikrishna, Sri Ram and          Sri Jagannath, all are one God. He said “Oh Lord! you like the devotees more than your life, The devotees are your parents, friends and brothers. Oh Lord my father is a Mughal; my mother belongs to Brahmin family. I am born in a family that no Hindu receives water from me. Kindly save me from this humiliation. I do not know anything in this world other than your Lotus – feet.

Salabega has been greatly interested to see the car festival of Lord Jagannath, while he was far away from Puri but has not been able to the sight of the car in his inner eyes. He could see the chariot of Balabhadra in front line, that of Subhadra in the middle and the chariot of Jagannath in the rear passing through the Grand-Road with pomp and grassers. Hence he prays to Lord Jagannath to give him’ darsan’ during the time of Car-Festival as there is no alternative to see him elsewhere because, of his birth in low caste. It is believed that lord Jagannath’s chariot stopped near Balagandi till arrival of the great devotee, Salabega from Brindhavan. This expression of the poet suggests his unhappiness and criticism of the contemporary society, based on discrimination and inequality between the Hindus and Muslims. He prays God to make it egalitarian and save the society.

In one of his bhajanes Salabega describes, “Oh, Jagannath! I do not ask you anything except a small piece of land from the Saradhabali. I do not want anybody but you. I also do not like to hear anything but your greatness. Excepting your songs, I do not even like to sing the song of others. I do not like to smell anything but the discarded tulasi, the flower and camphor from your feet. I always recite your name and ultimately. I pray that let the bird of my life fly away on this holy place of yours.

Thus the bhajanas of Salabega written in 17th century are considered the jewels of the Odia literature so for as their lucid language, thought and the style of music and sense of devotion are concerned. Undoubtedly this can be considered as a glorious period of the Odia literature that was written by a poet, brought up in Muslim surroundings sometimes in three hundred years before. Though prior to Panchasakhas and some other scholars were born and composed their monumental works like the Mahabharata, the Jagomohan Ramayan, the Bhagabat and the Adhyatma Ramayan etc. Under these circumstances the rise of Salabega as a poet can be undoubtly regarded as an auspicious movement in Odia literature though he was a Muslim poet, who wrote some ‘Jananas’ and ‘bhajanas’ expressing paths and devotion to God, is one example of Hindu-Muslim unity. Though he was a Muslim, in course of time he came in contact with a number of seers and sages of the contemporary time. He knows the languages of Odia, Urdu, Bengali, and Brajaboli. One can be astonished to see the mastery of Salabega over the Odia language. He was an expert poet in composing verses. Simple, forceful and delicious with no trace of artificiality in them. He has also shown his extraordinary skill in using old and indigenous words in most of his compositions. The style of Salabegas sentence formation also highly heart touching and the learned readers will be definitely astonished by listening to the beautiful compositions of Salabega, consisting of very simple, forceful and soothing words of common nature.

Thus Salabega occupies a prominent place not among the ideal devotes but also among the distinguished poets of Odisha, he was more associated with the common people than the reputed persons of the society. Hence he preferred simple language which would be easily understood by one and all. He had a definite command over the Sanskrit language. He was the author of the famous ‘Patitapavan Satakam’ which is widely in vogue all over Odisha. His fine description of ‘Patitapavan Satakam’ attracted the attention of many people. Without having sufficient knowledge in Sanskrit it would have never been possible to compose such a work in Sanskrit.

Thus when the medieval society was in bad condition, the rise of Salabega was an important chapter in Odishan history. His bhajans and Jananas attracted the attention of the masses.  His songs are extremely sentimental, heart throbbing and completely melodious. They have become more delicious with the application of the Odisi’ Ragas and Raginis. His language is simple and forceful. His bhajans are appreciated by the people of all walks of life. Thus he spread the idea of mutual harmony, toleration, co-operation and compromise among the Hindu and Muslims through his devotional Bhajans and Jananas.

Salabega aimed at religious harmony, human unity and social unity. He laid more emphasis on the Bhakti. Before God all men are equal, all religionists to be treated equal. Salabega is the glaring example of the above statement. Though he was a Yavan and opposed by the Pandas and the prevailing the then social condition to enter into the Jagannath Temple but he became a great devotee of Lord Jagannath through his pure love and devotion. His tomb-stone at Badadanda is a symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity and it opened the eyes of the people of the then society. Large number of people became his followers. He attracted the attention of all communities and castes. No one can imagine that Salabega was a Muslim and his father was formidable plunderer and veritable religious fanatic. Salabeg himself revealed his identity in some of his widely acclaimed bhajan of Odisha. Salabega says “I am Yavan“, My father is the son of a Mughal and mother, the daughter of a Brahmin. I am born in such a family that the Hindus do not even take water from me.

He preached the message of love and unity in the society. If God created all men. He did not certainly discriminate between man and man. He believed the equal status of Hinduism and Islam. He preached against the religious differences as well as caste system. The right to approach God is not the monopoly of a particular section of society, but is freely granted to whose characterised by sincerity of heart. His influence was close and seep to the society.

Thus Salabega initiated the incentive for social reform. His sense of social unity is remarkable. Large numbers of people read and recite his bhajanans and Jananas. However, from his language, thought and style it is known that he must have composed many bhajanas during his life time. As a Muslim poet of devotion he ranks among the reputed poets like Kabir, and Ramananda of contemporary period. His equalitarian thought, if translated into practice the social transformation would usher in the world. It can be surmised that Salabega was, on the whole a poet of the mass, an ideal devote, reformer, the creator of an age of now Literature.

Reference

[1]. Nilamani Mishra and Laxman Panda, Salabega, Rashtrabhasa Samavaya praiasan, Cuttack, P – 34.

[2]. U. N. Lunila, Evolution of Indian Culture, Laxmi Narayan Agrawal Educational publisher, Agra, 1992, p 332

[3] . Sukumar Sen, History of Brajabuli Literature, Chapter-XXI, P. 463.

[4]. Nilamani Panda, Laxman Panda, Op.cit, P. 38

[5]. “Jibanare thiba Jebe Jibi brundaban.

Darasan Kariba Jai, Sri Madhusudhan.

Radha-Krishna Bhirnna, Nohe kunjaban.

Kahe Salabega hina, Jatire Jaban”

Nilamana Mashra, (ed) Bhakta kabi Salabega: Jibani o Padyabali, Dharma Grantha Store, Cuttack, 1994, P. 38

[6] Sunapua Nachaire, Khaina Labani Sara.

Nahin Nahih boli, Srikrushna halai khanti karunare.

Sunayatatiarey gotika adham Sachini nabat khina.

Kaya boli Maa Sarapuli, Nei dainty ranga adhire.

Nilamani Mishra, (ed) Op.Cit’ 1991 p. 40.

[7] Jaya Tume Nand Kala Kahnai, Mo Namey Murali eaiba Nahin.

Sisire Tumar Mayur Pucha, Bame Auijai Bandhiba Nahin.

bame aujai bandhiba Jementa, Punja mali khanjib nahin.

Nilamani Mishra (ed), Op.cit, 1994, p. 43.

[8]. Santilata Dei ‘Vaishnaviss in Orissa’, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta. 1994, P. 97.

[9] Kene gheni jauchha Jagannath amaku

Ambhe drasan karibu kahanku.

Nilamani Mislra & Layman panda, Salabega, Rastrabhema Samayavya Prakasana, Cuttack, P. 42.

[10]. Nilamani Mishra and Laxman Panda, ‘op. cit’, P. 43.

[11] Nilamani Mishra and laxman panda, op.cit, P. 43.

[12] Eka to bhakata Jiban, Bhakata nimante tora sankha chakra chihna.

Bhakata to pita mata bhakata to bandhu. Bhakata nimante tore nama kripasindhu.

Kahey Salbega hina Jatirey mun Jiban, Srirangachranbinu na Janai aana.

Nilamani Mishra, Op-Mt 1994, P. 105.

[12] Jagannath hey kichhi magunahin tote, Magunahin Tote, Magunahin dhana, magunahin Jana. Maguchhi Saradhabaliru hate.”

Nilamani Mishra, ‘Op-Cit., 1994, P.70

[13] Jagabandhu hey Gosaain,

Tumbha Sricharan binu Annya gati nahin.

Satas panchas kosa chali naparai,

moha jiba jaye Nandighose thiba rahi,

Jagabandhu hey Gosaaie.

Nilamani Mishra, Op. Cit, 1994, P.70.

[14]B. C. Roy, ‘Orissa Under Moughals’, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta, 1981, P. 175

[15] Jagannath hey kichhi magunahin tote, Magunahin dhana, magunahin Jana. Maguchhi Saradhabaliru hate.”

Nilamani Mishra, ‘Op-Cit., 1994, P.70

[16] B. C. Roy, Orissa under Mughals, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta, 1981, P. 175

[17] Nilamani Mishra and Laxman Panda, ‘Op. Cit, p.28

Role of Media in Preservation of Culture: A comparative analysis of prime time news bulletins of two regional TV Channels

by Dr. Fakira Mohan Nahak

INTRODUCTION:

Culture is an ambiguous, broad and relative term. Its territory can be as narrow as a nuclear family or an individual and as big as the universe. Under the ambit of culture everything comes. It is a part and parcel of our life. It is inseparable from the human civilization. The way we talk, we write, dress, celebrate, cry, live, socialize, communicate, create, store and propagate that makes our culture. Our religious practices, societal values, congregations, rules, laws, food habits, arts, crafts, sculpture all are part of our culture. From the time immemorial man has moved from zero to hero.  Culture is a part of our development which is holistic and sustainable. It is treasure worthy and worth cherishing.

There was a day when there was no theoretical concept called DEVELOPMENT but man had the constant endeavor to get developed each passing moment. From eating raw flesh to baked flesh, from using stones as weapons to the use of sharp metallic weapons, from roaming naked to have a taste for varieties of outfits etc man has come a long way in pursue of development. Inventions of fire, wheel, paper, electricity etc were some of the path-breaking achievements that boosted development in every possible way.

Development is one of the most fiercely debated concepts in the contemporary social sciences. The concept is often equated with modernization, industrialization, social change, progress, growth etc. Development is comprehensive, dynamic and takes in its ambit every aspect of human existence. For in its fundamental meaning, all development is human development, the focus of development is the human being, the quality of his/her life and the environment in which the quality of life is sustained.

ROLE OF MEDIA:

With the passage of time man creates new wonders, develops cultures, creates traditions, shapes the societies and writes history. On the other hand with the advancement of time some creations become old and obsolete. But we can’t ignore them, because with the time all those creations become part and parcels of our lives. We try to preserve our culture, tradition and heritage. This is in reality required for the generation next. Traditional Knowledge Transfer systems are still there, where uniqueness of any culture or heritage is preserved for generations together. In this complete process, media plays a vital role. Media being the mouthpiece as well as the mirror of the society conveys the message to the mass.

In ancient days communication was through signs, postures and gestures which in other term non-verbal communication. But with the advancement of language, literature, technology the communication became verbal. Most of the communication carried out by media. In early days it was traditional media or folk media, but in modern days it is print and electronic media. And now it is new media or digital media. All have major contribution for the knowledge transfer and disseminating the message.

As we have discussed, with the passage of time, cultures, customs, traditions become old, at that time it is media which preservers it and passes it to the generation next. You can take the example of popular “PALA” folk form of Odisha. Earlier it was a best pass time and mode of entertainment for rural people. But now the present generation does not take interest in it. Though it is a cultural symbol, but does not get that much of public attention as 20 years before. But to its contrary television has made its inroad to every household and “PALA” is performed in the studio and reaches to the mass. By this way, the TV not only preserves the “PALA” culture but also makes it palatable for the generation next.

It is literature, art, performing art or culture, it needs a carrier to reach a wider audience and here the carrier is media. Example and case studies of such cultural propagation through media will be discussed in the later part. Here the researcher wants to cite former President Late Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam who had rolled out an eight-point mantra for the media to enable it effectively partner in national missions that touch the lives of every Indian. Kalam emphasized on promoting an enlightened society where education has a value system and religion is a spiritual force. He said, “The combination of economic development and preservation of values system drawn from our civilization heritage will transform India into a happy, prosperous and safe nation”.

IMPORTANCE OF TELEVISION AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION:

As the researcher is going to analyze the content of two leading regional TV channels of Odisha, prior to that it is important to know the importance of Television as a medium of communication. The television has invaded our houses since its inception in the 1950s. As a means of communication is has become almost indispensable. What was earlier deemed to be a luxury item has now become a necessity of almost every household. It holds its place as one of the best media of communication due to its omnipresence. In terms of audience penetration, television is the most mass of all the mass media. It touches our lives more intimately, more seductively, and more persuasively than any other. Television is arguably the most powerful medium in the world today and has created what McLuhan referred to as “the global village”.

The electronic media are transforming every aspect of man’s life and restructuring civilization, not so much by the content of their messages, but by the nature itself of television, movies, computers and other media.

According to DVR Murthy, television has a telling effect on the masses. The television with its immediacy and compelling images in bringing the day’s happenings at one’s doorstep and the news happenings are transmitted in seconds. The face of a politician or celebrity or an accused is shown alike on the TV screen and salacious presentation of men and women on the television screen has become its prime duty.

WHY PRIME TIME NEWS:

          In whatever format you present the content in television, it may not attract that much of audience unless until it is in the primetime. Prime time in television is basically evening hours, where people are free from the daily chores and settled to watch the TV. If the content is a capsule programme then it is ok, but if it gets a space in the news bulletin, then people give importance to it. For example, if a channel airs a feature programme on world famous heritage site Konark temple, then it may not attract much audience. But if there is any problem in the temple premises e.g. crack in the sanctum sanctorum, water logging in the temple compound then immediately it becomes a headline in the news bulletins and reactions pour from different corners, attracts administrative attention and subsequently measures are taken for its preservation.

So far as communication for the preservation of culture is concerned, we find less importance is given to this section by media. So here in this paper, the researcher tries to find out really how much of air time is given to news and features related to preservation of culture in the prime time news bulletin of two different leading regional Television channels of Odisha, ETV Oriya and Odisha Television- OTV. At the same time what kind of special attention is given by the TV channels in what format to cultural news that is also analyzed?

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRIME TIME NEWS OF ETV ORIYA AND OTV

ETV Oriya was the first private satellite television channels of Odisha launched on 27th January 2002. Similarly OTV was the first cable television channel of Odisha launched way back in 1997 and became a satellite channel on 2nd December 2006. Initially both the channels were infotainment channels and later became 24×7 News channel.

The researcher goes for a content analysis of 3 months 7pm prime time news bulletins of both the channels. A total of 184 news bulletins were recorded each of 30 minutes duration. Each second is considered as the unit of analysis. The researcher divided the contents in Development Reports and Non-development reports. Out of which only Development reports are taken for the study. All Development reports or the airtime given to development reports are divided into 14 different categories. Those are Agriculture, Health, Education, Road Transport & Communication, Industry & Employment, Administrative Reforms, Communal Harmony, Women Empowerment, and Children Issues, Preservation of Culture, and Environmental protection, Scientific Temperament, Human Rights and Food Security. From these 14 categories Preservation of Culture is one. Researcher tries to draw a conclusion with comparative analysis of different categories.

Total DC in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV and Airtime given to different categories in Seconds (October-2010)

DC OCTOBER 2010
ETV Oriya OTV
Agriculture 494 1008
Health 783 303
Education 1119 808
Road Transport & Communication 407 560
Industry & Employment 854 615
Administrative Reforms 287 521
Communal Harmony 173 205
Women Empowerment 201 180
Children Issues 195 232
Preservation of Culture 306 340
Environmental protection 876 694
Scientific Temperament 284 1231
Human Rights 188 859
Food Security 475 453
Total DC 6642 8009

This table indicates that OTV performs better than ETV Oriya as far as total airtime given to DC stories in October 2010 is concerned. OTV dedicated 8009s while ETV Oriya conceded 6642s to these stories.

  • Out of 14 content categories, as many as 8 viz AGR, RTC, AR, CH, CI, PC, ST and HR received better coverage in OTV.

Total DC in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV and Airtime given to different categories in Seconds (November-2010)

DC NOVEMBER 2010
ETV Oriya OTV
Agriculture 1502 1156
Health 1400 573
Education 542 443
Road Transport & Communication 214 271
Industry & Employment 524 997
Administrative Reforms 548 1155
Communal Harmony 57 0
Women Empowerment 45 122
Children Issues 326 158
Preservation of Culture 1427 1053
Environmental protection 1469 1106
Scientific Temperament 805 466
Human Rights 301 247
Food Security 23 119
Total DC 9183 7866

 

Total DC in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV and Airtime given to different categories in Seconds (November-2010)

This table shows that ETV Oriya is the clear winner in November 2010 by reversing the trend of the previous month as the channel devoted 9138s to DC stories in its 7pm Amari Odisha bulletin during these 31 days. OTV gave 7866s to such stories in the whole month. Agriculture, health, education, communal harmony, children’s issues, environmental protection, scientific temperament and human rights get better space in the primetime news bulletin of ETV Oriya during this month. Administrative reforms manage to get 548s in ETV Oriya’s primetime news. In contrast, OTV’s primetime bulletin devotes 1155s for such stories in November 2010. Preservation of Culture gets 1427 seconds in ETV Oriya and on the other hand OTV dedicated 1053 seconds of its airtime to the news on Preservation of Culture.

Total DC in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV and Airtime given to different categories in Seconds (December-2010)

DC DECEMBER 2010
ETV Oriya OTV
Agriculture 2960 3491
Health 2070 175
Education 162 492
Road Transport & Communication 523 550
Industry & Employment 973 975
Administrative Reforms 438 1230
Communal Harmony 440 705
Women Empowerment 56 0
Children Issues 366 796
Preservation of Culture 1460 515
Environmental protection 741 610
Scientific Temperament 89 78
Human Rights 390 38
Food Security 598 924
Total DC 11266 10579

 

This table indicates ETV Oriya has slight edge over OTV with respect to development reporting in the 7pm news bulletin during December 2010. The channel dedicated total 11266s to development reporting in the 31 primetime news bulletins aired in the month of December 2010. OTV’s primetime news show gave 10579s to development reporting during this month.

  • ETV Oriya gives better coverage to stories on health, Woman Empowerment, Preservation of Culture, Environment Protection, Scientific Temperament and Human Rights.
  • Issues related to AGR, ED, RTC, AR, CH, CI and FS receive better coverage in OTV.
  • ETV Oriya gives far better weight to Preservation of Culture and Human Rights in December as time given for Preservation of Culture by the channel is 1460s in contrast to 515s given by OTV.
  • ETV Oriya dedicates 438s to AR category which is less than half of OTV’s 1230s given to the same category.
  • Both channels show unimpressive coverage of stories on WE and ST in December 2010.
  • In 7pm Pratidin bulletin of OTV, children’s issues get 796s in December 2010; more than double the airtime they got in ETV Oriya.ie. 366s in the whole month.

 

Comparison of Total DC and Airtime given to Different Categories in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV (OCT to DEC-2010) in Seconds
  CHANNEL
DC ETV Oriya OTV
Agriculture 4956 5655
Health 4253 1051
Education 1823 1743
Road Transport & Communication 1144 1381
Industry & Employment 2351 2587
Administrative Reforms 1273 2906
Communal Harmony 670 910
Women Empowerment 302 302
Children Issues 887 1186
Preservation of Culture 3193 1908
Environmental protection 3086 2410
Scientific Temperament 1178 1775
Human Rights 879 1144
Food Security 1093 1496
TOTAL 27091 26454

 

Ranking of Different DC Categories in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV (OCT to DEC-2010)
  CHANNEL
DC ETV Oriya Rank OTV Rank
Agriculture 1 1
Health 2 12
Education 6 7
Road Transport & Communication 9 9
Industry & Employment 5 3
Administrative Reforms 7 2
Communal Harmony 13 13
Women Empowerment 14 14
Children Issues 11 10
Preservation of Culture 3 5
Environmental protection 4 4
Scientific Temperament 8 6
Human Rights 12 11
Food Security 10 8

 

Comparison of Total DC and Airtime given to Different Categories in 7pm Bulletins of ETV Oriya and OTV (OCT to DEC-2010) in Seconds

COMMONALITIES  

  • Agriculture gets top priority in the 7pm news bulletin of both ETV Oriya and OTV during Oct-Dec 2010.
  • Environmental protection gets 4th position among the 14 content categories in both the channels.
  • Both bulletins accord 9th spot to road-transport-and-communication.
  • 13th position goes to communal harmony in both channels.
  • Both ETV Oriya and OTV gave least importance to stories on women empowerment in their primetime bulletins during the period under study.
  • There is a strange coincidence as each channel gave 302s to women empowerment during these three months in their primetime bulletins.

CONTRASTS

  • ETV Oriya gives 3rd spot to preservation of culture and 5th spot to industry-and-employment. The reverse is observed in OTV ie. Preservation of culture getting 5th place and industry-and-employment getting 3rd
  • Health gets 4253s in ETV Oriya and 1051s in OTV. Its position is second only to agriculture in the 7pm Amari Odisha bulletin in these three months but relegated to 12th position in 7pm Pratidin bulletin of OTV.
  • The margin of airtime given to the 1st and 2nd spots in ETV Oriya is very small as compared to that in OTV. In ETV Oriya, agriculture with 1st spot gets 4956s and health with 2nd spot gets 4253s in 3 months. In contrast, OTV gives 5655s to agriculture which also has the top position among the 14 content categories. But AR at 2nd spot gets 2906s which creates a huge margin.
  • ETV fares well as far as airtime given to following content categories is concerned: Health, Preservation of Culture, Environment Protection and Education.
  • Though ETV Oriya gave more airtime to the DC stories during Oct-Dec 2010, OTV had a better coverage of as many as 9 content categories viz. agriculture, AR, industry-and-employment, ST, FS,RTC, CI, HR and CH.

Besides the prime time news bulletins throughout the day in other slots, both the channels air different programmes focusing Preservation of Culture. Not only that, very often these channels air Special Episodes and go for live broadcasts of different cultural issues which helps in propagating the cultural heritage of the state to a wider global audience. For example, famous Konark Festival, world famous Rathyatra of Lord Jagannath, Cuttack Dussera, District tribal festival “Parab” etc have got tremendous popularity only because of media.

OBSERVATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

It has been observed that, anything that comes in news gets immediate attention. So, for the preservation of culture, the researcher recommends that,

  1. News channels should design their bulletins in such a way, so that at least a single news item gets its place in the run down. This should be done on a regular basis may be in the form of kicker. It will definitely connect people to their roots and to their cultural heritages.
  1. Air maximum number of promos, pop-ups, tickers and full frame graphic plates on the stories, so that viewers will wait to watch the show anxiously. Similarly public participation programmes may be designed to make people involve in the stories particularly for the preservation of culture.
  1. The television news channels should increase the airtime dedicated to development reporting in their primetime bulletins including stories on Preservation of Culture.
  1. More investigative and interpretative reporting on developmental issues must be incorporated in the news.
  1. All these stories should be digitized and preserved in the digital platform, so that one and all can access it in present and future.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Abdul Kalam, A.P.J., Pillai, A.S. Envisioning an Empowered Nation: Technology for societal transformation, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Altshull, J.H. (1984). Agents of Power: The Role of the News Media in Human Affairs, New York: Longman.

Andal, N. (1998). Communication Theories and Models, New Delhi: Himalayan Publishing House.

Anderson, A. (1977). Media, Culture, and the Environment, News Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Barnett, P., Narula, U. (1984) , Development as Communication, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

Belavadi, V. (2008) Video Production, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Dasgupta, A. (2008). “TV-Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow”, Mass Media in India, India: Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.

Desai, A. Journalism and Mass Communication, New Delhi: Reference press

India Together. (2005). www.indiatogether.com

Kumar, K.J. (2011). Mass Communication in India, New Delhi: Jaico Publishing House.

Kumar, R. (2011).  Development Communication: A Purposive Communication with social conscience-An Indian Perspective, Global Media Journal – Indian Edition/ Winter Issue/Vol.2/No.2/ISSN 2249-5835

Melkote, S.R. (1991). Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice, New Delhi: Sage Publication.

Murthy,  D.V.R. (2006). Development Journalism What Next?, New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, Distributors.

Narula, U. (1994), Development Communication, Haranand Publication, New Delhi.

Nayyar, S.(2005). Encyclopedia of Mass Communication in Twenty First Century, Vol-1, New Delhi: Anmol Publishers

Publication Division, (2008). Mass Media in India, Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Boradcasting, Government of India.

Raghavan, G.N.S. Development and Communication in India- Elitist growth and mass deprivation, New Delhi: Gian Publication (Publishing) House.

Sainath, P. (1996). Everybody Loves a Good Drought, New Delhi: Penguine.

Schramm, W. (1964), Mass Communication and National Development, Stanford University Press.

Srichandan, L. (2007). “Role of Doordarshan & ETV in Development: The Orissa Experience”, Ph.D. dissertation. India: Berhampur University.

(The writer is a Research Scholar in Berhampur University)

Historical prospective of protection of Heritage, past, present and future

by Anam Behera

The unprecedented growth and expansion of the Town, City is one of the great challenges for existence of the heritage, monumental building and Archaeological site in the age of urbanization. Many priceless and valuable heritages were crushed under the wheel of the urbanization. It is a great concern for the planner and Administrator who the priceless heritage which we have inherited from our forefather to protected it and handed down to the prosterity.It is no doubt people those who aware about the importance of heritage are worrying how to protect, conserve and preserve it. Same time there also some people those are thinking that the heritage are no value or less value in comparison to the urban growth. We should respect the view point of both the people. Yes, urbanization is required for growth and development we cannot escape in the motion of the growth of urbanism. Same time we should give adequate attention towards the protection of our heritage. Every place, every event and every time and concern society has their own value. In this regard, society of present days, the event of urbanization is great concern. For the temple city Bhubaneswar. Late here express my view which I have accumulated information from the history of the two world heritage monument of India. One is belong to our state Odisha that is Konark and another one is TajMahal. Both of these monuments were slightly escaped from destruction. Both of the monuments are considered pride and glory of our country. under the British rule some commercial minded people thought that TajMaha should be pull down and the white marble of the TajMahal be sold in European market. Everything is ready for the work of demolition of TajMahal. it is the destiny of the monuments, at the verse of the destruction of the TajMahal.A latter reached from the authority where refers that  it is not viable for commercial point of view to sell the Marble in European market, and secondly the collapse of the Tajmahal may create a antagonistic attitude among Muslim against British.

Let’s see how TajMahal is one of the profits making tourist Attraction in India.

The ruins of konark known as black pagoda by the British Sailors those who were Travelled from Madrass (Chinnai) to Calcutta and Jagannath Temple is known as white pagoda due to its lime washes effect, both the temple were served as the land mark for the sailors in that days. When Odisha was occupied by Britishers in 1803, then it was decided by some British administrator that a light house be established over the ruin of the temple which will enable the sailor for their journeying in the sea. Before coming of European the Marathas rule over Odisha did not thought about conservation and revives of the temple .Rather they sifted the  arunastanba  from konark temple to the Jagannatha temple at Puri.Even  ruler of Puri collected stone from this place to Puri to construct palace and temple there. It is evident from the report of Andrew Starling,W.W.Hunter and R.L.Mitra that local people are engaged to collect iron beam from Konark temple.this was the past of Konark temple finally in 1902 the conservation work started.  But some people of the British administration imphatuated by the atheistic beauty of the sculpture in its ruins and they recommended for its renovation and conservation. Finally what happened, the Konark Temple becomes the world Heritage site, and it is one of its kinds in entire Eastern India. From these above stories of the two great monuments. The present town planner, thinker should learn something and work for the protection of heritage site in the Urban center.

In the case of Bhubaneswar the living monuments are some extent save by the community participation with the help of Government, but what happening on the unprotected and lesser known monument every one known about it. Even the centrally protected monument by Archaeological Survey of India Sisupalgarha in the verse of extinction.Sisupalgarha is one of only site in India which has unique and planed urban center belonged to 3th century B.C .For its protection every concern authorities express their helplessness, who knows what happening there. How much Land belongs to private person and How Much remains for Archaeology Survey of India .People from outside India under British rule realized to renovate and protect Konark, but in Independent India. People were remaining silent spectator before whom Sisupalgarh is in its final stage of extinction in the map of Archaeological site of India. Still Time is there to protect Sisupalgarh whatever remains in its present form and a stone temple park can be build having the replica of temple from all part of Odisha and even India which will be one of the great Tourist attraction of India.

Let me give another example regarding the value of heritage which is realized by many. The Dhauli Elephants and Asokan rock Edict, the same rock builder contains the inscription and the elephant sculpture. If we considered that the piece of rock can be used for utilitarian purpose, for fulfillment of the material aspect of the society by knowingly and unknowingly. Who many kilometers of concrete road can be built. Who many years it can be able to serve the purpose of the people. But as heritage this small piece of stone considered as glory for Odisha and it commonly contributed for generating money for government in form of Tourism. Another experience I had gather from field that while exploration of area around Khurdha and Jatani  the owner of the mound Harirajpur,Banga have willing to sell  the soil of mound to make Brick which is very much demand for construction works. Somehow timely decision of prof K.K.Basa anthropology department of Utkal University and prof Rabimahanty of Deccan College Pune, to undertake Archaeological excavation of the site, as a result a new horizon of knowledge about chalcolithic culture of Odisha come to lime light. Second observation is about the attitude of the people toward the sites especially in Khurdha region, the idea of people about chalcolithic mound is being

Restricted with memory of Khurdha fort which is belonging to medieval period. But it is beyond the imagination of common people to thought that these simple hips of soil belong to four thousands year old. So that they are neglect the site which found on government land and destroyed it for converting to agricultural land and another common use.

Finally we all are agree that, A building having hundreds of storey can be build anywhere, with the help of modern sophisticated machine, can we? Create a heritage, monument and Archaeological site which belongs to the thousands of years old. If Answer is no. then everyone should thought about our heritage, come forward to protect it and if it is necessary save it and protect for future generation.

Regarding future of heritage here we can cited the thought of people tsuch as.  James M. Hensline believes  In earlier time’s people lived relatively in isolation, for human history cultures had little contact with one another, consequently in their relative isolation group of people developed highly distinctive way of life in response to a particular situations they faced. The characteristic they developed, that distinguished one culture from another tended to change little over time .according toJames D.Wolfonohn, president of       World Bank “cultural Heritage can be justified for Tourism, for industry and for employment, but it must also be seen as an essential element in preserving and enhancing national pride and sprit”.Directore general of UNICCO ,General F .Mayor .says the potential benefits of world heritage extend  far beyond the sites which have been steed ,since these area as a whole can bring resource for training which will be of wider application and can be flagships in terms of raising public awareness of conservation issues, and world heritage sites have no doubt became tourist attraction and form the backbone of the tourism Industry.

(The writer is from P.G. Department Ancient Indian History Culture and Archaeology, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswer)     

Invoking the Past

by Ajit Kumar Sahoo

The Paiks and Identity formation in colonial and post-colonial Odisha

Generally, Identity is understood as an object of construction with specific socio-political or cultural relevance. Eric Hobsbawm has stated that most traditions, which appear or claim to be old, are often quite recent in origin and sometimes even invented. This paper is an attempt to understand how the idea of great martial race- the Paik (literally: ‘foot soldiers’) tradition- did invoked by Odia nationalists and intelligentsia for the purpose of creating regional consciousness during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. They traced back the idea of nationalism from the Paik rebellion of 1817 and projected this rebellion as first great rebellion in India against colonial power. Memories and histories of the Paiks and the heroes of the 1817 rebellion such as Jai Rajaguru, and Buxi Jagabandhu were constructed, invented and presented through various kinds of agencies such as stories, poetry, drama, and museum with certain socio-political motives. The transformation of the Paik as only a military category into a tool of Odia nationalism is the main focus of this paper. I would like to analyse the way in which the martial tradition has been designed and maneuvered within a specific situation and context in both pre-independent and post-independent era.

Introduction

Like every person, every society has its past, which it retrieves, reconstructs, interprets, and represents differently at different times. This martial identity could be seen as a product of Odia nationalists infusing the idea of self-hood in the mind of Odia people. In pre-independent period it was a very common feature in most of the regions in India where “regional nationalists” used their respective cultural aspects of the region to negotiate with the colonial government on the issue of regional political identity.  It is my contention that no doubt were both the Odia language and Lord Jagannath the prime factors for the growth of Odia identity, but so many other icons and traditions such as Yayati Kesari, Dharmapad tradition, Baji Rout, Paik tradition and Surendra Sai were invented, reinvented and popularized during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and even post-independent period for the sake of the creation of Odia identity. It is true that these cultural movements in different regions are mostly apolitical or motivated by politics.

The “Paiks’ (literally: ‘foot soldiers’) who evolved during the sixteenth century A.D. were recruited from a wide variety of social groups ranging from landed magnates (Khandayat) and peasants (Chasa, Pana, Bauri) to tribes (Kandara, Khondh, Bhuyan, Sabara), and even Muslims. They received hereditary rent-free land in lieu of salaries as well as titles (Dalbehera, Gadanayaka, Khandwala) from the rajah (king) for martial services rendered in battle. During the early years of British administration since 1803 when it captured Odisha, feelings of discontent developed among the people due to their worsening condition and due to the introduction of various administrative policies by the colonial government. But, the main and foremost reason for the discontentment of the Paiks was the resumption of their rent-free jagir lands, which they had enjoyed for more than three centuries, irrespective of any change in rulers – Mughals, Afghans, and Marathas. As a result, the Paiks revolted against the British in 1817 under the leadership of Buxi Jagabandhu, the commander-in-chief of the king of Khurda. Although the rebellion was crushed by the British, it was remembered as a very important event by the people of Odisha.

British Colonial Perceptions of the Odias

Mostly, the colonial officials relied on Bengalis to study the geography, history, people, society and culture of Orissa who had been associated with the Europeans and especially British since seventeenth century and more over the British had no knowledge of Odia language. The colonial state faced a stiff resistance in the form of Paik rebellion just after its acquisition of Orissa in 1817. Hence, in most of the early colonial writings, Orissa and its people were projected in very degrading manner. Few examples can be taken in this regard. In 1818, Walter Ewer wrote, “The state of intellectual acquirement amongst the Ooriahs (Odia) is far below that of any other people of India. Their ignorance and stupidity are indeed almost proverbial, and they don’t hesitate to acknowledge their own inferiority in intellect and comprehension to their more highly gifted neighbours.” According to Robert Ker, another British official, “The people as sunk in the most object state of human degradation and intellectual and corporeal imbecility. They are the most rude and ignorant of all the races in India subject to British dominion.” In 1872, W.W. Hunter, a colonial official wrote ‘Orissa’ in two volumes.  Prior to Hunter, an article titled, “An Account (Geographical, Statistical and Historical) of Orissa proper or Cuttack” by Andrew Stirling was published in Asiatic Researches (1822s) which throws some lights on historical aspects of Orissa but it missed to give a clear picture of pre-colonial Orissa. Another British officer W.W. Hunter his book Orissa (1872) projected Odisha and its people in a very derogatory way. For him, “To the world’s call-roll of heroes it will add not one name. The people of whom it treats have fought no great battle for human liberty, nor have they succeeded even in the more primary task of subduing the forces of nature to the control of man.”Similar perceptions were constantly reflected in the writings of colonial officials.

Defining Odia Masculinity

To counter such colonial stereotype of the people of Odisha as effeminate, weak and uncivilized Odia intellectuals tried to project themselves as one of the strong and masculine races of human civilization. They realized the need of a history with long and glorious tradition for the people of Odia speaking region. This popular discourse emerged in the late part of nineteenth century. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, print technology and modern education shifted Odia society into a different and upward direction, and also played a major role in the formation of an educated middle class. This new emerging educated intelligentsia cum nationalist tried to inject the feeling that the people of Odisha had been a powerful race since time immemorial, by presenting a long connected history. The great writers of Odisha attempted to give a long lasting and glorious history of Odisha. Contemporary vernacular newspapers such as Utkal Dipika, Sambalpur Hiteisini, Balasore Sambadabahika and Asha, and journals viz., Utkal Prabha, and Uktal Sahitya continuously highlighted these aspects. Hence, the Odia historians justified their existence, contribution, and heroic activities in the past through their writings. For example, Jagabandhu Singh traced Paiks as far back in time as the Kalinga war (261 BCE), where they fought bravely against Asoka’s army. In the same vein, the Paik rebellion of 1817 was interpreted as the first war of independence. In some cases, they exaggerated facts to glorify the history of Odisha. So many legends and oral traditions became popular during that period. For an example, according to the local tradition of the Khurdha region, “[Jagabandhu] was a man of fine physique and of great bodily strength. In an old temple at Khurda there still exists a stone 10 x 5 x 2 ½ feet, which he is said to have partially raised from the ground.” This type of legends still exists in Khurda and its periphery regions.

Here, I have analysed the works of some contemporary Odia intellectuals to show how they invented the idea of Odia consciousness through the exercise of glorification and construction of history. The first of this kind was Kachi-Kaveri,a play written in 1880 by Ramsashankar Ray, who is regarded as the father of modern Odia drama. The plot of this play is the battle between the Suryavamsi king Purushottamadeva and the Kanchi king Saulava Narasimha of southern India. Interestingly, Ray’s play had come out when there was strong reaction against British policy towards the Jagannath temple and especially Gajapati Divyasinghadeva’s imprisonment for life in 1878 on a murder charge. Ray also portrayed the bravery and sacrifice of Odia Paiks in war.The presentation of power, valour, and heroism of Odia Paiks inspired and motivated the people to revive their past glory. Phakirmohan Senapati, known as the father of modern Odia literature, depicted the glorious military tradition –brave, daring, heroic Odia – to construct the history of Odia in Lachhama (1901) one of his novels. Though the subject of this novel deals with the Maratha invasion of Odisha, Senapati has mixed historical facts with the idea of glorious fiction. Senapati argued that though Odisha lost its independence in 1568, the martial spirit of Odias had never vanished. This novel demonstrates the conflict between Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, and the Maratha power led by Bhaskar Pandit. It shows the courage and bravery of the Paiks and their leader Mandhata Samantaray, an Odia chieftain, as an ally of Alivardi Khan against the Marathas. He was well aware of the defeat of Odia Paiks at the hands of Afghans, Mughals, Marathas, and British in 1803 A.D. Senapati, himself a Khandayat by birth, conceived of the heroic deeds of his ancestors. Through the character of Mandhata, Senapati revived the idea of heroism among the Odia Kshatriya, which had declined due to the repeated invasion of outsiders. Godavarish Mishra was another noted Odia writer-cum-nationalist, who glorified Odia jati with his famous novel Atharasah Satara in which he highlighted the heroism of the Paik rebellion and the sacrifices of its hero Buki Jagabandhu and the Paiks against British rule. According to Godavarish, though the British suppressed the Paiks in 1817, they could not kill their quest for freedom forever. He was optimistic that the Odia would show the same zeal and spirit again against foreign rule for the freedom of the motherland. Kuntala Kumari Sabat, another Odia writer-cum-nationalist, tried to revive the martial tradition of Orissa. Her main motive was to inject the idea of self-confidence and self-belief in the mind of the people of Orissa as she felt that the Odias had lost their self-confidence. The Odia youths should enroll in the army like the Sikh, Rajput, Maratha, Gurkha, and identify themselves as the bravest soldiers in front of the world. She said there should be gyms and physical training centers to train the Odia youths. She even argues that both Rajputs and Odia Khandaits belonged to the same ancestor. The tradition of glorifying the Paiks continued with the Odia writers viz., Godavarish Mohapatra (Paikara Yudhayatra) Aswini Kumar Ghosh (Govinda Vidyadhar, Keasari Ganga, and Paika Pua), Bhikari Charan Patnaik (Raja Purusottamdeva and Katak Vijay) and many others.

During the national movement, the Odia nationalists invoked the martial glory by establishing various volunteer organizations with the objective of preserving peace and order and protest against colonial government. One such organization was the Lal Paik Dal formed in Balasore during the Civil Disobedience Movement. The main idea of inserting the term “Paik” was mooted by Surendranath Das, and endorsed by Gopabandhu Choudhury to popularize the zeal for past heroism among the people of Orissa. The Lal Paiks were to offer public services like extinguishing fire, saving people from drowning, and helping people during epidemics. Another important transition occurred due to the glorification of Paik tradition, i.e. the quest for martial identity led to caste mobilization in the last part of colonial Orissa. Many caste people tried to recognize themselves as Khandaits which was clearly visible in colonial census operation. Even Bhuyians who were the part of Paik system during pre-colonial period claimed for Khandayat status.For example, in Cuttack district the number of Khandaits and Chasas in 1901 in Cuttack district was 422,573 and 236,466 whereas in the 1931 Census report, the figures were 548,664 Khandaits and 153,663 Chasas. Akio Tanabe, who has done extensive fieldwork in the Khurda region in 1992, suggests that there was virtually nobody who willing claimed oneself to be a Chasa in this region. All agricultural caste people claimed to be either Khandayats or Paiks. Hence, the word ‘Paik’ has now become a caste term.

Paik Tradition and Post-colonial situation

There have been deep involvements of both agents and agendas to constitute and to construction a martial identity for the Odia speaking region even after independence. During the post-colonial India it has been seen that the exercise of retrieving the key elements of past glory still continued and celebrated with joy. Stories, novels, plays have been constantly highlighting the heroic deeds of the paiks and their leaders such as Buxi Jagabandhu, Jai Rajaguru, and others. The leaders of the Paik rebellion became heroes and legends in space and time and are now examples for Odia youths. Stories related to the paiks find place in the school text books. Schools, colleges and various organizations were named after the great heroes of the Paik rebellion. Most importantly, it gained importance in public sphere and also among politicians. The politicians and statesmen did not hesitate to glorify the Paik tradition. For instance, Harekrishna Mahatab, ex-chief minister of Orissa invoked the Paik tradition and their heroic activities for the sake of motherland and appealed to the youth of Orissa to serve the people and society selflessly like the paiks, for the development of Orissa. Even in his book he glorified the paiks and condemned the actions of colonial government against the paiks. To keep the martial tradition alive in minds of the people, the state government of Orissa started organizing state-level martial art competition in 1979 and first was held in Bhubaneswar in 1979. These competitions have been sponsored and organized by the Directorate of Sports and Youth Affairs, the State Government of Orissa. Since that year competitions are organized at regular intervals. In 2003 around 110 paika troupes took part in a three-day Martial Tradition Festival of Orissa. It was inaugurated by Gajapati Maharaja of Puri, Dibyasingha Deb, the Chief Minister of Orissa, Naveen Patnaik, was also present.

To encourage the persons associated with sports and traditional martial practices the government of Orissa began a pension programme in 1st June 2006 for those who have made significant contribution in the field of sports and game including Martial Arts and Akhadas. Even, the spouse of the deceased indigent sports person is liable to get pension.On 9th October 2008, the government of Orissa proposed to establish a ‘Paika Akhada Academy’ in Gajapati district in south Orissa to promote the traditional martial arts of the State. To get benefits from the government they have been constantly trying to project them as the true ancestors of Odia heroes of the past who had fought against the enemies. On 5th December 2006 a group of paiks organized protest in the capital Bhubaneswar with few demands such as setting up of two paik training academies in the state, priority in police and defence service recruitment, recognition of the akhadas and monthly allowances for paik trainers, and conservation and protection of two historical monuments- Khurdagarh, a fort and Barunei, a religious place of the paiks. Dilip Srichandan, president of Khurda Atithya Surakshya Samiti and noted Odia film producer argues that the state government should adequate step to protect the interest of these people. According to him, “the youth of the community should get priority in recruitment of police and defence. The youths trained from akhadas should be issued certificates equivalent to the certificate of NCC.” In 2011, he made a fine documentary on Paik rebellion titled Paika Bidroha to present the heroic acts of the paiks through visual media. The documentary is simultaneously made in three languages, which includes Odia, Hindi and English. Orissa Tourism Department also has been organizing ‘Kalinga Mahotsav Martial Dance Festival’ in regular intervals, which showcases the dance and various war tricks of the paiks. The government of Orissa has taken initiative to celebrate the second centenary of the Paik rebellion in 2017 in grandeur manner. All these methods are used by the government of Orissa in different times not only to glorify the paik tradition, but an attempt to acquire political support from the present successors of the paiks of the past. Tanabe suggests that the idioms of imperial rituals have been continuing even after independence and political intentions work behind such cultural ceremonies. He says public rituals provide both occasion and arena for performance based on various political and cultural ideas and ideologies, in which identities are shaped, confirmed and contested. In the memories of heroes of Paik rebellion, statutes and memorials have been installed in different parts of the state. Even, colleges and schools have been established in their names. So, constant attempts have been made by the most of the political parties to involve in the cultural arena of different castes and communities and to create their political influence over the people.

Conclusion

This paper tracks the transformation and usage of the category ‘Paik’ from a martial community to a marker of Odia identity. The central argument that this paper that the Paik tradition was invoked during colonial period with the purpose of inculcating the idea of ‘freedom’ in the mind of Odia masses against colonial power during the period of national movement and to create an identity for the people of Odisha when an identity of Odia speaking region at a crossroad. Hence, the Paik tradition was incorporated along with Odia movement as well as national movement. Even it has been placed its position both in literature and public sphere in post-independent period.

[i] Here I have used the term “regional nationalists” for the leaders who had demanded the creation of separate province, but wanted regional identity in the spectrum of Indian nationalism.

[ii] Mohanty, Panchanan. ‘British Language Policy in Nineteenth Century India and the Odia Language Movement’.  Language Policy 1 (2002): 53-73.

[iii] Behera, Subhakanta. Construction of an Identity Discourse: Odia Literature and the Jagannath Cult (1866-1936). New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2002.

[iv] Dash, Gaganendra Nath. ‘Soma-vamsi Yayati in Tradition and Medieval Odia Literature’. Studies in History 28(2) (2012): 151-177.

[v] Dash, Kailash Chandra. ‘The Dharmapada Tradition Revisited’. Studies in History. 27 (I)  (2011): 21-40.

[vi] Stirling, Andrew. ‘An Account, Geographical, Statistical and Historical of Orissa Proper, or Cuttack’.  Asiatic Researches, vol. 15 (1822): 163–338.

[vii] Hunter, W.W. Orissa, vol.1. London: Smith, Elder& Co., 1872. 3.

[viii] Toynbee, A Sketch of the History of Orissa from 1803 to 1828. 14.

[ix] Ray, Ramsashankar. Kanchi-Kaveri(Odia), Cuttack:1977, Kanchi Kaveri(Odia), Orissa State Museum, Acc. No. 3002.

[x] Samantrai, Natbara. Oriya Sahityara Itihasa,1803-1920(Odia). Cuttack: 1964. 432.

[xi] In 1568 A.D. Afghans captured Orissa.

[xii] Senapati, Phakirmohan.  Atmajivan Charita,(Odia). Cuttack, 1963.

[xiii] Generally, the term ‘jati’ in Odia connotes race, clan, caste, community and nationality. Hence, in Odia, ‘jati’ has context-specific usages. Here, it implies for the Odia nationality.

[xiv] Dash, Sabita & Gaurang Charan Dash. Kuntala Kumari Granthavali (Odia). Eds. Cuttack: Nabadiganta, 2008. 627-55.

[xv] Mohapatra, Godavarish. Godavarish Lekhavali, (Odia). Part.1. Cuttack: 1978, 122.

[xvi] Ghosh, Aswini Kumar. Aswini Kumar Granthavali,(Odia). Vol.1. Cuttack: 1963.

[xvii] Samantrai, Natbara. Odia Sahityara Itihasa. 463-64.

[xviii] Nanda, Chandi Prasad . Vocalizing Silence: Political Protests in Orissa, 1930-42. New Delhi: Sage Publication, 2008. 34-35.

[xix] Malley, L.S.S.O. Bihar and Orissa Gazetteers, Puri. Patna: Government Printing Press, 1929. 86-87.

[xx] Risley,H.H. The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, vol.1. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press, 1891. (Reprint 1981, Calcutta: Firma Mukhopadhyay),.462.

[xxi] Malley, L.S.S.O. Bihar and Orissa District Gazetteers, Cuttack. Patna: Government Printing Press, 1933. 61.

[xxii] Mahapatra, C.D.  ‘Jai Rajguru’ Banaphula (Odia monthly), February 1917. 66.

[xxiii] Prajatantra, 20th June 1973.

[xxiv] Mahatab, Harekrushna. History of Orissa, vol. 2, Cuttack, 1960. 439.

[xxv] The Hindu, 26th January, 2007; The Telegraph, 13th January , 2011 & The Hindu, 22nd  November 22, 2010.

[xxvi] The Hindu, 7th December 2003.

[xxvii] Government of Orissa (Sports and Youth Services Department), Letter No. 2134, dated 12.07. 2006.

[xxviii] The Hindu, 10th October 2008.

[xxix] The Hindu, 6th December 2006.

[xxx] Tanabe, Akio. ‘Remaking Tradition and Martial Arts Competition in Orissa, India,’ p. 223.

(The writer is an Assistant Professor in Pg dept. Of History, Utkal University

ଭାରତୀୟ ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ଐତିହ୍ୟ ଉପରେ ଆଧାରିତ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଜାତୀୟ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀ ଉଦ୍‌ଯାପିତ

  • ଭାରତ, ଶ୍ରୀଲଙ୍କା, ନେପାଳ, ଭୂଟାନ ଓ ଥାଇଲାଣ୍ଡର ଗବେଷକଙ୍କ ଯୋଗଦାନ
  • ୭ଟି ବିଷୟରେ ୮୩ଟି ମୌଳିକ ନିବନ୍ଧ ଉପସ୍ଥାପିତ
  • ୩ଟି ପୁସ୍ତିକାର ପ୍ରକାଶନ

ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର, ୨୦ ମାର୍ଚ୍ଚ ୨୦୧୭ : ଉତ୍କଳ ବିଶ୍ୱବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ ଏବଂ ଇନ୍‍ଷ୍ଟିଚ୍ୟୁଟ୍ ଅଫ୍ ମିଡ଼ିଆ ଷ୍ଟଡିଜ୍ (ଆଇଏମ୍ଏସ୍) ଆନୁକୂଲ୍ୟରେ ତଥା ଆଇସିସିଆର ଏବଂ ଓଡ଼ିଶା ଲାଇଭ୍ ସହଯୋଗରେ ଆୟୋଜିତ ଭାରତୀୟ ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ଐତିହ୍ୟ ଶୀର୍ଷକ ୩ ଦିନିଆ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଜାତୀୟ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀ ଉଦ୍ୟାପିତ ହୋଇଯାଇଛି ।

ଏହି ସମାରୋହରେ ମୁଖ୍ୟଅତିଥି ଭାବରେ ଯୋଗଦେଇ ଅତିରିକ୍ତ ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଶାସନ ସଚିବ ତଥା ଡେଭେଲପ୍‌ମେଣ୍ଟ କମିସନର ଆର୍ ବାଲକ୍ରିଷ୍ଣନ୍ କହିଥିଲେ ଯେ ଭାରତୀୟ ସଂସ୍କୃତି ଓ ଐତିହ୍ୟ ଏକ ବହୁତ ବଡ଼ ବିଷୟ । ଏବେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଏହାର ଅନେକ ଦିଗ ରହିଛି ଯାହା ଉପରେ ଅଧିକ ଗବେଷଣା କରାଗଲେ ଆମ ସଂସ୍କୃତିର ବିବିଧତା, ଗଭୀରତା ତଥା ବୈଚିତ୍ର୍ୟ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ନୂଆ ନୂଆ କଥା ଲୋକଲୋଚନକୁ ଆସିପାରିବ । ତେଣୁ ଏ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ଅଧିକ ମୌଳିକ ଗବେଷଣା କରିବା ସହ ସତ୍ୟନିଷ୍ଠ ହେବା ପାଇଁ ସେ ଗବେଷକମାନଙ୍କୁ ପରାମର୍ଶ ଦେଇଥିଲେ ।

ଭାରତ, ନେପାଳ, ଭୂଟାନ, ଶ୍ରୀଲଙ୍କା ଏବଂ ଥାଇଲାଣ୍ଡରୁ ଶତାଧିକ ଶିକ୍ଷାବିତ୍ ଓ ଗବେଷକ ଏହି ଆନ୍ତର୍ଜାତୀୟ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀରେ ଯୋଗଦେଇଥିଲେ। ବିଶେଷକରି ରବିବାର ସାରାଦିନ ଉତ୍କଳ ବିଶ୍ୱବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ ଅଧୀନରେ ଥିବା ଦୂର ଓ ନିରନ୍ତର ଶିକ୍ଷା ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶାଳୟ (ଡିଡିସିଇ) ପରିସରରେ ଦୁଇଟି ପ୍ଲିନାରି ଅଧିବେଶନ ସହ ସାତୋଟି ଟେକ୍ନିକାଲ ଅଧିବେଶନ ଅନୁଷ୍ଠିତ ହୋଇଥିଲା । ସାତୋଟି ଭିନ୍ନ ଭିନ୍ନ ବିଷୟରେ ତେୟାଅଶୀ ଜଣ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ମୌଳିକ ନିବନ୍ଧ ଉପସ୍ଥାପନ କରିଥିଲେ । ସୋମବାର ଦିନ ପୂର୍ବାହ୍ନରେ ଆୟୋଜିତ ଉଦ୍ୟାପନୀ ସମାରୋହରେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରମାଣପତ୍ର ପ୍ରଦାନ କରାଯାଇଥିଲା ।

ଏହି ଅବସରରେ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀର ଆବାହକ ତଥା ଆଇଏମଏସର ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶକ ପ୍ରଫେସର ଉପେନ୍ଦ୍ର ପାଢ଼ୀ ଦେଶବିଦେଶରୁ ଆସିଥିବା ଅଂଶଗ୍ରହଣକାରୀମାନଙ୍କୁ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ବଳିଷ୍ଠ ଉପସ୍ଥାପନା ପାଇଁ କୃତଜ୍ଞତା ଜଣାଇଥିଲେ । ଉତ୍କଳ ବିଶ୍ୱବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ ପିଜି କାଉନସିଲର ଅଧ୍ୟକ୍ଷ ପ୍ରଫେସର ରଞ୍ଜନ କୁମାର ବଳ, ଡିଡିସିଇର ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶକ ପ୍ରଫେସର ସୁସ୍ମିତ୍ ପାଣି, ସାଧାରଣ ପ୍ରଶାସନ ବିଭାଗର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ପ୍ରଫେସର ସ୍ୱର୍ଣ୍ଣମୟୀ ତ୍ରିପାଠୀ, ଏକାଡେ଼ମିକ୍ କୋଅର୍ଡିନେଟର ଡକ୍ଟର ପ୍ରଜ୍ଞାପାରମିତା ପାଣିଗ୍ରାହୀ ଏବଂ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀର ଯୁଗ୍ମ ଆବାହକ ତଥା ଓଡ଼ିଶା ଲାଇଭ୍ ମିଡ଼ିଆର ସିଇଓ ନୀଳାମ୍ବର ରଥ ଏହି ଅବସରରେ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀର ସଫଳତା ପାଇଁ ଅଂଶଗ୍ରହଣକାରୀ ଏବଂ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ସହଯୋଗୀ ଅନୁଷ୍ଠନ ଓ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିବିଶେଷଙ୍କୁ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଜଣାଇଥିଲେ ।

କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ ପରିଶେଷରେ ବିଦେଶରୁ ଆସିଥିବା ଶିକ୍ଷାବିତ୍ ଓ ଗବେଷକମାନେ ସମ୍ମିଳନୀ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ମତାମତ ଉପସ୍ଥାପନ କରିଥିଲେ । ଏହି ତିନିଦିନିଆ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ନିବନ୍ଧର ଉପକ୍ରମଣିକାକୁ ନେଇ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ “ଆବ୍‌ଷ୍ଟ୍ରାକ୍ଟସ୍’ ସହିତ ତିନୋଟି ଗବେଷଣାଧର୍ମୀ ପୁସ୍ତିକା ଉନ୍ମୋଚିତ ହୋଇଛି ।

3-day International Conference on Indian Cultural Heritage Concluded

83 scholastic papers presented by scholars from India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Thailand

Bhubaneswar, 20th March 2017: “Historians must initiate a large scale research on the cultural heritage preserved by the indigenous and language groups in India for millenniums together alongside the evolution of the so called mainstream cultural heritage. Faithful and fundamental research is important in addition to the scholarly studies based on secondary information” said R. Balakrishnan, Additional Chief Secretary-cum- Development Commissioner-, Govt. of Odisha.

Mr. Balakrishnan was addressing the Valedictory Ceremony of ‘International Conference on Indian Cultural Heritage: Past, Present & Future’ (ICICH) here jointly organized by Utkal University and Institute of Media Studies (IMS) in association with Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) and OdishaLIVE.

The 3-day conference hosted over a hundred of academia, scholars, researchers, historians, policy makers, performing artists, tourism & media professionals, critics, writers and students from four SAARC countries including India, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka along with Thailand. A total of 83 scholastic papers were presented during two Plenary Sessions and seven Technical Sessions organised at the Directorate of Distance and Continuing Education (DDCE) campus of the University.

“Indian Culture has always generated global interest from ancient period. For centuries, Indian culture has moved out of the mainland and has created new hues across the globe. We need to be rooted in our culture, rediscovering and reassessing our cultural heritage with its language, literature, religious faith and festivals” mentioned Prof. Upendra Padhi, Convenor, ICICH in his concluding remarks.

Among others academia from Utkal University Prof. Ranjan Kumar Bal, Chairman, PG Council; Prof. Susmit Pani, DIrector, DDCE; Prof. Swarnamayee Tripathy, HoD, Public Admin Dept.; Dr. Prajna Paramita Panigraphi, Academic Coordinator and Mr. Nilambar Rath, Co-Convenor, ICICH and Founding Editor and CEO of OdishaLIVE spoke at the valedictory ceremony.

Participants, scholars and delegates were focussed on the predominant influence of Indian Culture on South Asian and South East Asian countries with sub themes like History and the Continuum; Indian Culture and the Diaspora; Philosophy, Religion and Culture; Indian Culture, Science and Globalization; Language, Literature and Culture; Performing Arts, Media and Culture; Tourism and culture.